Filed under: Reviews | Tags: Bahman Saless, Boulder Chamber Orchestra, Cobus Du Toit, Ginger Hedrick, Hsing-ay Hsu, Jerome Flegg, Kaori Uno, Kellen Toohey, Kent Hurd, Kim Brody, Max Soto
I have attended three or four concerts this concert season where the musicians involved in the performance truly seemed totally energized and excited by the music they were going to perform. Such was the case Saturday evening, May 11th, with the Boulder Chamber Orchestra under the direction of Maestro Bahman Saless. They performed an all-Beethoven program at the Broomfield Auditorium in front of a full house.
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra opened the program with the overture to Beethoven’s only ballet, The Creatures of Prometheus. A result of an association with the choreographer Salvatore Viganò in 1800, it was first performed on March 28, 1801. At the time, it was quite popular, and received twelve performances, but even so, it was eventually criticized as being far too serious for a ballet. This work carries the number Opus 43, which is quite challenging, because it indicates that the work was written quite a bit later than it actually was. We know, for example, that there was a piano arrangement of the score published as Opus 24. It was the publisher, Hoffmeister, who published the score of the overture under the incorrect number Opus 43, which, of course, leads one to believe an incorrect composition date. Beethoven also used the theme from the ballet in his Twelve Contradanses (without opus number), the Variations and Fugue for Piano, Opus 35, and the connection for Saturday evening’s performance, as a major theme in the last movement of his Symphony Nr. 3.
This Beethoven overture is a relatively short work, but it is quite an exciting one, and was well-chosen to begin this program. The work opens with forte chords separated by a considerable space between them. The attacks on each of the chords were perfect, followed by lyrical sections of the full orchestra with the weight of the melodic line carried by the woodwinds. This short introduction is then followed by the theme of the opening chords with an underlayment of sixteenth notes in the strings. This is a very exciting piece of music, and it only works if there is true precision from the violins. That precision was in abundance throughout the whole concert Saturday evening. That sounds like a very obvious thing to say, especially considering the fact that these are all professional musicians, but I assure you there was a very special “edge” to the performance on Saturday. It was full of tension and excitement. The other aspect that I noticed about the performance was that all of the musicians on stage were not only watching Maestro Saless, they were very carefully watching each other. The sforzandos (a marked and sudden emphasis) were as perfectly together as the entrances, and that comes from eye contact with each other, as well as the conductor. Beethoven’s ballet, The Creatures of Prometheus, has fallen by the wayside as far as its popularity is concerned. That, in my opinion, has led many conductors to treat the overture to the ballet as a “filler” piece of music, to be used only when a short work is needed for the program. It was great to hear Maestro Bahman Saless and the Boulder Chamber Orchestra treat it like the genuine piece of music, which it is.
Following the Beethoven overture, Boulder (and world) pianist Hsing-ay Hsu joined the Boulder Chamber Orchestra in the performance of Beethoven’s Piano Concerto Nr. 5 in E Flat Major, Opus 73, known as the “Emperor.”
Surely, everyone in Colorado must, by now, know who Hsing-ay Hsu is; however, I will quote from her bio statement which is on the web:
“Since making her stage debut at age 4, Chinese pianist Hsing-ay Hsu (“Sing-I Shoo”) has performed at such notable venues as Carnegie Hall, the Kennedy Center, Alice Tully Hall at Lincoln Center, and abroad in Asia and Europe.
“Upon entering her freshman year at Juilliard, she won the William Kapell International Piano Competition silver medal. Hsu was also winner of the Ima Hogg National Competition First Prize, the prestigious Juilliard William Petschek Recital Award, a McCrane Foundation Artist Grant, a Paul & Daisy Soros Graduate Fellowship Award, and a Gilmore Young Artist Award. She was also named a US Presidential Scholar of the Arts by President Clinton at the White House.
“A versatile concerto soloist performing Bach to Barber, she is described by the Washington Post as full of ‘power, authority, and self-assurance.’ Concerto collaborations include the Houston Symphony Orchestra as first-prize winner of the 2003 Ima Hogg National Competition, the Baltimore Symphony, the Colorado Symphony, Pacific Symphony (CA), Colorado Springs, Florida West Coast, Fort Collins, New Jersey, Waterbury (CT), China National, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Xiamen orchestras. Television and radio feature broadcasts include Garrison Keillor’s Prairie Home Companion Live from Tanglewood (for a 10,000+ live audience members and 3.9 million broadcast audience), NPR’s Performance Today with Martin Goldsmith, TCI cablevision’s Grand Piano Recital (CA), CPR’s Colorado Spotlight, China Central National TV, Hong Kong Phoenix TV, and Danish National Radio. She has recorded CD/DVD’s for Pacific Records, Albany Records, and Nutmeg Press labels.
“An advocate of new music, she has given numerous world premieres including Ezra Laderman’s Piano Sonata No. and Beshert; Ned Rorem’s Aftermath (2002) for baritone and piano trio; Daniel Kellogg’s scarlet thread at the Guggenheim Museum in New York and his Momentum, which she commissioned for the 1998 Gilmore International Keyboard Festival; as well as Du MingXin’s Piano Concerto No.3 at the Gulangyu International Piano Festival and National Tour. Chamber music appearances include Carnegie Weill Hall, Bargemusic in New York, the Aspen Music Festival, Tanglewood, the Great Lakes Chamber Music Festival, the Gardner Museum in Boston, the Detroit Art Museum, Denmark’s Viborg Hall, Taiwan’s Novel Hall, and a 2007 all-stars gala in Hong Kong for the 10th anniversary of the reunification. Recent projects include the ongoing multi-media recital China through the Lens of Piano Music, co-directing/performing in the George Crumb at 80 Music Festival, and producing/performing the Olivier Messiaen Centennial series.”
I suppose that it is not without reason that Beethoven’s Fifth Piano Concerto is nicknamed the “Emperor,” though I hasten to point out that nickname did not come from Beethoven. The name arises from the fact that it is a very forceful piece, akin to the “Eroica” Symphony Nr.3, also in E Flat Major (and also performed at Saturday’s concert). Beethoven, perhaps, more than any other composer, has had so much written about him which is full of nonsense by the early romantically-inclined critics, that today, one must realize that listening to a single page of his music is far more instructive than reading a hundred pages of the early literary effusion. The Fifth Piano Concerto is full of sharp forte-piano shadings, and incredible bravura eruptions, but the second movement also contains some of the most idyllic writing to come from Beethoven.
As stated above in her biography, Hsing-ay Hsu takes charge of the piano the moment she sits down. Her playing is full of confidence, and why shouldn’t it be? Consider all of her awards and concert experience. However, she also exudes true musicianship, and understanding of the composer that she is playing. I also hasten to interrupt myself here, to explain that Maestro Saless, in speaking to the audience, clarified that all of works on Saturday’s concert were going to be taken at tempos that were consistent with those of Beethoven’s era. They were faster than the tempos of today. As Hsing-ay Hsu began to play, it was clear that she was comfortable, and in full agreement with the tempos that were no doubt discussed with Maestro Bahman Saless. Her arpeggios ascending the keyboard from the opening chords of the introduction were crystal clear because of her very careful pedal use. She certainly used less pedal on the ascending arpeggios and the accompanying trills at the top than, for example, Claudio Arrau. Yet, it was wonderfully musical. I was also immediately struck with the impression that she was enjoying the Sauter piano because of its clarity of tone, though there were spots in certain registers of the keyboard that seemed a little out of tune, unlike other performances that I have heard on this particular piano. Her playing is so clean that it boggles the mind, and she has such power that it seems there is no chance that the orchestra could cover her. Her playing in the second movement was positively ethereal and dream-like. And, indeed, it is one of Beethoven’s most expressive statements in his entire output. I have often stated that it is sometimes more difficult to play slowly, concentrating on tone production and dynamic shadings, then it is to play fast and loud. Hsing-ay Hsu allowed the second movement to radiate emotion without being overly sentimental, and never once did she leave Beethoven’s style behind. The second movement has a slow transition which gets faster as it progresses, and the third movement of the concerto begins attacca (begin what follows without pausing). The tempo of the third movement was very quick indeed, but Hsing-ay Hsu filled it with the jubilance that I have not heard for some time. Once again, the members of the orchestra were watching each other carefully. The violins and cellos, which could easily see the piano keyboard, were also keeping a sharp eye on Ms. Hsu. It was a perfect example of an orchestra determined to allow the soloist and the conductor to lead them in this piece and offer both individuals all the support they could muster. It was clear that the members of this orchestra truly enjoyed playing with Hsing-ay Hsu because she is such an incredibly reliable musician.
Allow me to explain precisely what I mean by reliable. It means that the soloist not only knows where every note and rest and dynamic marking is, but is able to communicate that with eye contact and gestures with the conductor. In the third movement of this concerto, Ms. Hsu had a miniscule memory slip, and came in a beat late. This is not an extreme criticism by any stretch: it is part of the price of admission of being a soloist. I am confident that no one in the audience spotted this slip because I doubt that anyone in the audience knows the score well enough to spot such a small error, but it did result in an amused smile from Hsing-ay Hsu. Her reliability as a performing musician allowed her great confidence to keep going as if nothing had happened without losing a secondary beat, and it also gave Maestro Saless the confidence to know that she was going to continue without a stumble. She knew the piece so well that her tempo never changed, her eyes never got wide with shock, and she never lost her breath. That is mental and musical reliability, and total knowledge of the work at hand. It is the mark of experience, which is something that is difficult for the audience to understand unless they do it themselves in their own field of endeavor. Hsing-ay Hsu gave a wonderfully exciting performance of this very difficult piece, and her artistry and musical excellence were in a sphere obtained by only a few.
Following Hsing-ay Hsu’s remarkable performance, Maestro Saless and the Boulder Chamber Orchestra performed Beethoven’s revolutionary Symphony Nr. 3 in E flat Major, Opus 55. Note that I used the word “revolutionary.” In truth, all of Beethoven’s symphonies are revolutionary, because he did so many things other composers would not do, as in his first symphony (which is in C major). He starts on the wrong chord, travels through a minor, then F major, and at the beginning of the exposition section, finally settles in C major. Just that aspect startled critics of the day. Of course, being a revolutionary meant that his thinking was in advance of his contemporaries, and that he was misunderstood because his contemporaries refused to look forward. It was due only to later generations to award Beethoven their honor with their enlightenment.
This Third Symphony is so well-known that it really needs no movement by movement explanation. But I must point out that in the first movement the entire cello section was absolutely marvelous. In the second movement the oboes, Max Soto and Kimberly Brody excelled, as did Cobus du Toit and Ginger Hedrick, flute. In fact, the entire woodwind section including Jerome Fleg and Kellen Toohey, clarinet; and Kent Hurd and Kaori Uno, bassoon, were all exceptional. I have never heard the horn section of the Boulder Chamber Orchestra play as well as they did in this Third Symphony. As I said in the opening paragraph of this article, this was a wonderful concert by everyone on stage. It clearly was the best performance I have ever heard the Boulder Chamber Orchestra give. Everyone on stage, guided by Maestro Bahman Saless, had a knowledge of Beethoven that allowed them to present Beethoven in his purist sense. What more could one ask for?
Filed under: Reviews | Tags: Andrew Cooperstock, Arthur Foote, Bahman Saless, Boulder Chamber Orchestra, Ernest Bloch, J. S. Bach, Samuel Barber
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra presented a very interesting concert at the Broomfield Auditorium Saturday evening. Of the four works presented, the BCO performed two works, one by the American composer Arthur Foote (1853–1937), and the other by Ernest Bloch (1880–1959). Bloch, of course, is much better known than Arthur Foote, but both of these works deserve to be heard today, and these two works contributed to making this concert truly rewarding.
Foote has been overshadowed by other American composers who were more aggressive harmonically, while Foote is often ranked with composers such as Edward McDowell and Amy Beach. To my way of thinking, Foote is considerably better than either of those composers, even though much has been made by a supposed influence of Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms, and, even Wagner. Comparisons to those three composers are all irrelevant, and the comparison seems to have been made simply because Foote used traditional harmonies, and, therefore, the comparison would seem to be easy. There is absolutely no relationship in his music to Wagner, and precious little to Schumann and Brahms, because his melodic lines are beginning to show an angularity with melodic leaps that, if exaggerated, might presage Copland or Roy Harris, or perhaps, Ferde Grofé. While there is absolutely no evidence that Arthur Foote was influenced by traditional American themes as Copland was, there is an element in his music that is distinctly American.
The work performed Saturday evening was the Suite for Strings in E Major, Opus 63. It is in three movements, Praeludium, Pizzicato and Adagietto, and Fugue. At first glance, the second movement, Pizzicato and Adagietto, would seem to be a two section movement; however, the Pizzicato is repeated after the Adagietto so that it becomes three sections. Originally, there was a fourth movement, a Theme and Variations, but, for whatever reason, Foote decided against that addition.
As the Boulder Chamber Orchestra began the performance of this work, it was apparent that it could easily be identified as written by an American composer because of the shape of the melodic line. It was also apparent that since Arthur Foote was educated completely in the United States, that he was very isolated from all the European trends that had such an impact on music at the turn of the twentieth century. This is an excellent piece, and it is very attractive. It is apparent that Foote is a skilled and artistic composer, but the “spiritual” isolation from composers such as Stravinsky, and even Debussy, are evident.
The performance itself was excellent, but I felt that in this first work on the program, the BCO did not experience its accustomed performance “excitement” that usually fills everything when they are on stage. In the first movement, the first violins have the melodic line with some syncopation in the accompaniment played by the second violins and violas. The syncopation seemed a little on the mushy side, but please understand that I am criticizing at a very high level. The pizzicato in the second movement was not always precisely together which makes this movement difficult (how many of you can name the Tchaikovsky Symphony that has a movement entirely pizzicato?). Even if one violin, or viola, or cello, is not with the rest of the orchestra when pizzicato is being played, it is noticeable. The third movement, which is an enormous fugue, was the best movement of the three. The BCO seemed to be uniformly thinking, “Okay, this is a hard movement, so we had best be on our toes.” It was exciting, and it certainly demonstrated that Arthur Foote was a very fine craftsman. The concert going public truly needs to hear rare music such as this. While this particular work may be among the very best that Arthur Foote wrote it certainly raised my curiosity concerning the remainder of his output.
Following the Suite for Strings, Andrew Cooperstock joined the Boulder Chamber Orchestra and performance of J. S. Bach’s Keyboard Concerto Nr. 5 in F minor, BWV 1056. Cooperstock is so well-known as a fine pianist, that I don’t think he needs any introduction here. He has performed throughout the United States and Europe, and, fortunately for us, with many orchestras and chamber groups in Denver.
This Concerto is made up of three movements, all of them in ritornello form, which is typical of the Baroque Period, and certainly of the concerto grosso style. The ritornello form is a term that is usually applied to the first and last movement of the Baroque Concerto. These movements consist of an alternation of tutti (full orchestra) and solo sections. The tutti sections are based on identical material while the solo sections vary. The full orchestra sections are what give the ritornello its form. In the first movement, there is a solo section which is an almost sonata-like development, full of triplets that were stated in the opening tutti. It was exciting to listen to, and Cooperstock’s playing is always very clean and very articulate. He was, by the way, conducting from the bench, and his movements in doing so were extremely subtle. Of course, they would almost have to be subtle, because Cooperstock is playing almost all of the time. A Baroque Concerto, at least in the first and third movements, never gives the soloist much opportunity to sit and relax, as he is constantly playing. If he is conducting from the bench, he can only nod his head or raise his eyebrows in expectation. The orchestra performance in the Bach, finally hit its stride: it was excited and full of life, and it seemed to gain a lot by following the obvious energy given to it by Cooperstock.
In addition, I must say that the Sauter piano that Cooperstock performed on sounded absolutely perfect. It was in tune and it sounded as though the technician that services it knew what he was about. Sauter, of course, is one of the five or six best pianos in the world, and one would expect it to sound good. The Broomfield Auditorium is very fortunate to have such a piano.
The performance of the Boulder Chamber Orchestra, Andrew Cooperstock’s fine performance, and the excellent piano, would surely have pleased Bach. It was full of vivacity and vigor.
The audience demanded an encore, and Cooperstock responded by playing a Nocturne by Samuel Barber. It was a beautiful performance of Samuel Barber’s tribute to Irish composer John Field, who was the originator of the nocturne form which Chopin borrowed and made famous.
After the intermission, the Boulder Chamber Orchestra performed Samuel Barber’s well-known Adagio for Strings. This work, which was originally the slow movement from Samuel Barber’s String Quartet Nr. 1, Opus 11, has to be one of the best-known pieces of American music. It has been used for many funeral ceremonies, but it was not originally intended as a work of great sorrow, but one of intense meditation by the composer. Its arch form, slow buildup and then release of tension, and its deep, profound emotion, always surpassed the other movements of the original string quartet from whence it came.
Performing a piece such as the Adagio for Strings can sometimes be fraught with danger because it is such a familiar piece with such power that it must be done perfectly. And, the Boulder Chamber Orchestra and Maestro Saless did it perfectly. The music was allowed to work its magic on the audience without any kind of exaggerated dynamics or phrasing. In spite of its profound expression, it possesses a certain amount of simplicity, and, above all, a sense of great dignity. It may be that is what has helped this work become so successful. Dignity is the one aspect of this work that the Boulder Chamber Orchestra never lost sight of.
The last work on the program was the Concerto Grosso Nr. 1 by Ernest Bloch, (1880-1959). Straight away, I will warn you readers not to confuse this Ernest Bloch with his contemporary, Ernest Bloch (1885-1977), who was a German philosopher and music lover. The Ernest Bloch that we are concerned with was born in Switzerland, immigrated to the United States, became Director of the San Francisco Conservatory, and eventually Professor at the University of California in Berkeley. He still seems more European to me than American, particularly when one considers his knowledge of all that was being done in Europe. His music was strongly influenced by chants from Jewish worship, as well as twelve-tone serial technique.
The work that the Boulder Chamber Orchestra and Andrew Cooperstock performed Saturday evening was Bloch’s Concerto Grosso, which was written, as the program notes correctly stated, to demonstrate to his students at the Cleveland Institute of Music (which he founded) that one could write a Baroque concerto grosso using traditional techniques, but modern sounds. The piano, which is the concerto instrument in this composition, is placed at the rear of the orchestra, because even though it is the major instrument, it serves an almost dual role as soloist, and as a very prominent continuo, in that, it supports the orchestra.
The first movement, which is marked Allegro energico e pesante, begins with some very powerful chords. It is invigorating and exciting to hear because of its drive. The slow movement is lyric and beautiful, but, unlike the suggested mood from its title, Dirge, it did not strike me as being overly poignant or sad. The BCO and Cooperstock played it very expressively. The third movement is entitled Pastorale and Rustic Dances. I think it may have been a surprise to many people in the audience who were not expecting a 20th Century work to so easily portray a pastorale. But, it is a tribute to Bloch’s compositional ability that it does just that so easily. And, in truth, its overall sound is not as “avant-garde” as one might hear from Webern or Berg. The last movement is quite a remarkable fugue that uses every fugal technique invented by J.S. Bach: retrograde, inversion, and augmentation.
The performance of the Bloch was truly exceptional. The piano was used in the same way that Bartók used the orchestral instruments in his Concerto for Orchestra: it was considerably more important than an orchestral instrument, but only slightly less than a true concerto instrument. The size of the Boulder Chamber Orchestra, and the ear of Maestro Saless, was perfect to allow the piano to be heard, placed as it was, at the rear of the orchestra.
Again, the audience demanded an encore, and Maestro Saless chose one of the Romanian Dances by Béla Bartók.
In spite of the slow start, this was another fine performance by the Boulder Chamber Orchestra, because they were able to gather themselves together, and truly get down to business. In addition, it was an absolutely fascinating program because of the works performed. How many of the audience members have ever heard of Arthur Foote, let alone his wonderful Suite for Strings in E Major? And, why is it that the fickleness regarding “new music” has relegated Ernest Bloch’s music to silence, rather than the frequent performance that it deserves? There was absolutely no question that the audience appreciated this performance by Andrew Cooperstock, Maestro Saless, and the BCO, and well they should have, because it is another example of instruction in rare music beautifully performed. I guarantee you that all of us need that.
Filed under: Reviews | Tags: Annmaria Karacson, Bahman Saless, Brune Macary, Chelsea Lehnert, Cobus Du Toit, Gyöngyvér Petheö, Lori Walker
It is always a great pleasure to attend a concert that, because of the reputation of the orchestra, soloist, or choir, you have a very reasonable expectation that it should be good. When it becomes obvious that the performance is not just “good,” but is exceptional in every way, that is a real bonus. It magnifies the pleasure of attending the concert many times over. Such was the case Friday evening when I attended a concert of the Boulder Chamber Orchestra at the Broomfield Auditorium.
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra opened their program with the Concerto Grosso in D minor, Op. 6, Nr. 10 (HWV 328), by George Frederic Handel (Opus numbers are still commonly used for Handel. However, the official Thematic Catalogue of his Works in Chronological Order compiled by Bernd Bäselt, is entitled HWV, which stands for Handel Werke Verzeichnis). In 1737, Handel had a very severe stroke which took three years from which to recover. Two years after the stroke, in 1739, he had recovered enough to write a set of twelve concerti grossi. The invention of the concerto grosso is universally assigned to Arcangelo Corelli.
Handel’s twelve concertos are the Opus 6, and a close examination of this collection will show no influence by the other popular composers of the time, mainly Corelli, Vivaldi, Albinoni, and Bach. Opus 6, Nr. 10, is one of the standouts of the group of twelve. I truly believe that any influence by other composers that some scholars say exists is purely coincidental.
This work begins in a very serious, if not dark, vein, and from the outset, I was struck by the absolute precision of entrances and dynamics. The phrases, so carefully shaped with dynamics, were, to my mind, perfect. The precision was not done in a mechanical way by any means; everything was wonderfully musical and very expressive. The fast movements were done with exactly the right amount of rhythmic pulse, and the tempos that were taken were excellent as well. The BCO was unmistakably full of enthusiasm for this piece, as well as enthusiasm for simply making terrific music. It was clear, by the way they performed, that they were having a very good time performing such a wonderful piece.
The second work on the program was the Concerto in G minor, RV 439, by Antonio Vivaldi. It carries the subtitle of “La Notte.” It would have been beneficial if the writer of the program notes for Friday’s concert had included the opus number or RV number for this composition – and/or perhaps, the key the piece is written in. The Vivaldi thematic catalogue is excruciatingly complex, and I will quote from other articles I have written:
“Every time I write about Vivaldi, I try to explain the RV thematic catalogue numbers, because in Vivaldi, more so than any other composer, it is a complex process. Rather than just one scholar establishing the chronological order of all of Vivaldi’s works, there are five musicologists and one publisher involved. To make a long story short, Mario Rinaldi catalogued much of Vivaldi’s output, but some works were not included or not yet discovered. The Danish musicologist, Peter Ryom began his own catalog of Vivaldi’s works and also included a Concordance with Rinaldi’s catalog. Ryom suggests using RV, wherein the V stands for the German word Verzeichnis, or catalogue (not Vivaldi as many suspect), and R can refer to either the Italian publisher Ricordi or to Rinaldi. I pray that you readers will trust me on the following comment, and that is: once the difference between all of the Rs is established then one can continue to the Pincherle Catalog, the Fanna Numbers, or the Malipiero Organization.”
This Vivaldi flute concerto which was performed by Cobus du Toit is probably the most difficult flute concerto that Vivaldi composed. What made this performance so stunning was the fact that Cobus du Toit asked for special permission to perform this without Maestro Bahman Saless conducting. That means, of course, that du Toit wished to conduct, which certainly gives the soloist a full plate. It was an absolutely amazing performance. Cobus du Toit is one of the finest flute players I have heard for quite some time, and what made this performance so outstanding, was the fact that the Boulder Chamber Orchestra musicians respect him very highly. All of the musicians in this organization are exceptional, and all of them have vast amount of chamber experience. They kept their eyes glued to Mr. du Toit, and he was certainly capable of conducting “from the bench” as it were. Of course, du Toit had the concerto memorized, and so was not constrained by having to watch a score as well as give cues to the musicians and the orchestra.
This concerto is absolutely beautiful, and, like the Handel before it, begins on a very serious but beautiful theme. Du Toit has absolutely amazing breath control, and this concerto has some trills which seemed to last forever. Not only did he make them last “forever,” but there was one trill which required that the trill be done with his fifth finger. Imagine holding one key down with your fourth finger, and then try trilling with your fifth finger of the same hand. It was amazing to watch, as much as it was amazing to hear, and it was done pianissimo. I have always been impressed with his playing, because as he moves in order to breathe, or to assist with the phrasing, he keeps the flute absolutely horizontal to his mouth. That means that he is always in tune, and that is one of the first things many other flute players do not do for whatever reason. If the flute sags from horizontal, one gets unwanted sounds and a distortion of tone.
Du Toit would occasionally turn to the orchestra to indicate the tempo that he would take, but for the most part faced the audience. However, every eye in the orchestra never left him and his movements to conduct them while playing. His virtuoso ability, combined with the wonderful musicianship of everyone in the Boulder Chamber Orchestra, made this a performance that was absolutely unforgettable.
Just prior to the intermission, the Boulder Chamber Orchestra played the Brandenburg Concerto, Nr. 3, by Johann Sebastian Bach. This is such a well-known piece that nothing needs to be said about it. I am positive that all of you readers have heard it. I first started listening to the Brandenburg Concertos (Do all of you remember that there are six?) when I was eleven or twelve, and I have often had great difficulty deciding which was my favorite, not that that was necessary. However, Friday night, even if it was just for this particular concert, the Boulder Chamber Orchestra made it clear that I should pick the Third Brandenburg Concerto. It was so masterfully done: the tempos were perfect, it had exactly the right amount of exuberance and rhythmic pulse that Bach requires, and the dynamics from everyone were absolutely together. I’m sure that the Boulder Chamber Orchestra has played this work many times, but they certainly communicated their love for it, and the fact that it might well be their favorite Brandenburg as well. They certainly made it sound as if it were Bach’s favorite. So much of what Bach wrote seems to portray him as an individual who was vibrant and full of life. The last movement was absolutely rollicking, and again the entrances were amazingly precise, as they were throughout the first two works on this concert program. I was left wondering where Maestro Saless found all of these incredible musicians. Every single one of them displays a commitment to the music first, and a commitment to their orchestra. The fewer there are in a chamber orchestra, the easier it is for those in the audience to hear occasional errors. These musicians are so dedicated, that I am sure some of them came away from Friday’s performance wishing they had performed a few measures, here and there, at a higher level. Every true musician always wants to do better. But, every work on this program was absolutely scintillating and wonderful to hear.
In 1711, Antonio Vivaldi’s reputation as a composer was beginning to spread throughout Europe. An Amsterdam publisher issued a set of violin concertos for one or more violins and orchestra with the title of Harmonic Inspiration. Bach was very impressed with these works, and transcribed them for other instruments, and, as a matter of fact, the Concerto for Four Violins and Cello, which was performed Friday evening, as the program notes point out, became Bach’s Concerto for Four Harpsichords.
The four violin soloists were Annamaria Karacson, Chelsea Lehnert, Gyöngyvér Petheö, and Brune Macary. The cello soloist was Clayton Vaughn. These individuals are all amazing musicians, and the performance of this work was truly spectacular. It is full of technical and musical traps that would send lesser musicians back to the practice room for many more hours. I have never been sure why the cello is usually left out of the title of this work, because it certainly is an integral solo instrument. What I appreciated so much in this performance was that the musicians did not try to impose their own individual style as they performed this piece. All of them played solid Vivaldi, and all of them are so accomplished at their instrument, and accomplished as ensemble players, that it was an incredible celebration of the music. As an ensemble, everything was perfectly clear and pristine, and surprisingly, they played at a dynamic level that allowed the wonderful continuo playing by Lori Walker, on the harpsichord, to be heard. Lori Walker, like everyone else in this orchestra is exceptional.
Maestro Saless ended the evening with a Suite of Carols which had been arranged by Leroy Anderson. That is certainly a name that I had not thought about for many years: how many of you readers remember his composition Syncopated Clock? These arrangements did not possess any kind of “commercial sound” whatsoever. They were done artfully, and very sensitively, and it was a great way to end the program.
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra dedicated an encore, Silent Night, to the victims of the tragedy in Connecticut.
Maestro Bahman Saless has assembled a remarkable group of musicians that are striking because they all obviously care so much for what they do. They are a joy to listen to, and one always leaves a Boulder Chamber Orchestra concert feeling refreshed and content.
Filed under: Reviews | Tags: Boulder Chamber Orchestra, Bahman Saless, Jennifer Kampani, Jennifer Lane, Béla Bartók, Giacomo Puccini, Giovanni Pergolesi, Divertimento, Chrysanthemums, Stabat Mater
Saturday evening, November 17, the Boulder Chamber Orchestra performed a terrific program at The Montview Boulevard Presbyterian Church in Denver. It was terrific because they not only play well, but this was a very eclectic program of Puccini, Bartók, and Pergolesi. It was also interesting because all three of these composers required only a string orchestra, and not the full complement including brass, winds, and percussion.
Maestro Bahman Saless opened the program with Puccini’s Chrysanthemums. This is a very early work written by Puccini (1858-1924) when he was thirty-two years of age. He had already composed two operas by that time, but they were not outstanding successes. In addition to opera, Puccini was particularly drawn to the string quartet, and Chrysanthemums, even though it is regularly performed by string orchestras, was originally written for string quartet. The stimulus for writing this particular work was the death of Prince Amadeo di Savoia, Duke of Aosta in Italy. The Duke was a member of the reigning royal family of Italy, and was to eventually become King, but he renounced his title to become the King of Spain, only to abdicate that title as well, and returned to Italy. The flower, chrysanthemum, is a late blooming flower, and is commonly used in Italy as a tribute to be placed on the grave of a recently departed. Puccini’s Chrysanthemums is a single movement work of great melancholy, and its themes were again used in his great tragic opera, Manon Lescaut, which he completed in 1893. It was his first successful opera.
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra was absolutely stunning in the performance of this work. The cellos have the opening theme, and I don’t ever recall hearing this done so precisely that it sounded like one single instrument. Do not think for an instant that this precision implies a lack of emotion or musicality. It was very powerfully done. As I listened to this work, I had a great deal of difficulty realizing that I had made a mistake in trying to discover which section was performing at a higher level. The cellos were great, the violas were great, and the violins were great. This orchestra is wonderfully balanced not only from the standpoint of technical ability, but also musical ability. Maestro Saless received everything he asked for from them: phrases were perfectly shaped and the dynamics were extreme. Everyone in the orchestra clearly recognized the passion that lay behind this composition.
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra performed the Bartók Divertimento for String Orchestra following the Puccini. The program notes stated that this work was written in 1936. I think that might be a typographical error, because I was always under the impression that the work was composed in 1939 shortly before Bartók left Europe for the United States. He had stayed in Europe as long as he could, because of the illness of his mother, and in 1939 he decided to take a break, not only as caregiver for his mother, but to relax his mind from the stress of the gathering Nazi war machine, and the Nazi sympathizing regime in Hungary. He traveled to Switzerland, and stayed at the home of conductor Paul Sacher. Sacher was the forward thinking conductor of the Basel Chamber Orchestra, and he commissioned the Divertimento in 1939. It received its premiere in Basel, Switzerland, in June of 1940. Note that there are two separate thematic catalogs for the works of Béla Bartók. One is by Laszio Samfai, and carries the identifying initials of BB. Thus, the Samfai catalogue number for the Divertimento is BB 118. The other catalogue is by András Szöllösy, and the number for the Divertimento is Sz 113.
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra was absolutely beautiful in the performance of this Bartok piece which is, quite frankly, not heard often enough. Maestro Saless, in a few remarks before the performance, characterized this work as “very light.” I certainly agree; however, I also think that it is incredibly transparent, especially for Bartok. It is more clearly tonally centered, and has some very appealing melodic lines. Again, I was struck by the sensitivity exhibited by Bahman Saless and the members of the orchestra. The B theme group can only be described as enchanting. All three movements were well-nigh perfect when one considers attacks, expressiveness of tone, and phrasing.
The second movement is very dark and mysterious, and would seem to be somewhat reflective of Bartók’s thoughts and worries concerning his mother and the pending invasion of his homeland. Some may say that is a stretch, but the BCO performed it in such a manner that provided a very ominous aura. The third movement is really more cheerful than the first movement, and this is not the first of Bartók’s work to contain a fugue or a canon. This movement contains a small fugue which evaporates a short time later after it begins. It was absolutely delightful playing, and in fact, I could have listened to it very happily a second time.
Following the intermission, the Boulder Chamber Orchestra performed the Stabat Mater by Giovanni Pergolesi (he was born in 1710, and died of tuberculosis in 1736). Pergolesi orchestrated this for a soprano and a mezzo-soprano, and the guest artists Saturday evening were Jennifer Kampani, soprano, and Jennifer Lane, mezzo-soprano.
The Stabat Mater is a 13th century poem taken into the mass as a sequence in the late 1400s. To define a sequence, one must first be aware of the definition of a trope. A trope is a textual addition to amplify passages of text. For example, if the text is “Lord, have mercy upon us” then the trope would be “Lord, creator of all, have mercy upon us.” A sequence is a special kind of trope where in each strophe of text is followed by another of the same length and meter, and both are sung to the same melodic segment which is repeated for the strophe. Therefore, an example of the structure would be: A BB CC DD E.
The length of this poem is considerable, and it added to the length of the Mass accordingly. It was, therefore, removed by the Council of Trent (1543-1563), but in 1727 it was added for use in the Feast of the Seven Dolours, which is celebrated on 15 September. The text of the poem describes the agony of Mary as she stands at the foot of the cross as her Son is crucified.
Both of the guest artists have considerable performing experience with many orchestras and operas throughout the United States and Europe. I will quote briefly from their bio statements:
“Grammy nominated soprano Jennifer Ellis Kampani, who ‘offers a freshness of voice, fineness of timbre, and ease of production that place her in the front rank of early-music sopranos,’ (andante.com) is one of the leading interpreters of the Baroque repertoire. She has performed with the Richmond Symphony, Washington Bach Consort, Bach Choir of Bethlehem, and New York Collegium. She was also a featured artist in ‘Le Tournoi de Chauvency’ a Medieval opera production which toured through Europe. Her international career has included appearances with the period instrument groups American Bach Soloists, Baroque Band, Portland Baroque Orchestra, Seattle Baroque Orchestra, Opera Lafayette, Apollo’s Fire, Musica Angelica, Boston Camerata, Bach Sinfonia, Magnificat, and the Washington Cathedral Choral Society. …Ms. Kampani has recorded Kingdoms of Castille (GRAMMY nomination 2012), Salir el Amor del Mundo, and Passion and Lament for Dorian, Villancicos y Cantatas and The Essential Giuliani for Koch, the works of Chiara Cozzolani (Gramophone editors pick, August 2002) for Musica Omnia, and Carissimi Motets for Hungaroton. Born in San Francisco and a graduate of the University of Michigan and the Guildhall School of Music in London, Jennifer recently moved to the Detroit area with her husband and two young sons.”
“Mezzo–soprano Jennifer Lane is recognized in the United States and abroad for her stunning interpretations of repertoire ranging from the early Baroque to that of today’s composers. She has appeared with many of the most distinguished festivals and concert series worldwide in programs ranging from recitals and chamber music to oratorio and opera. These include San Francisco Opera, Théâtre Châtelet, L’Opéra de Monte Carlo, New York City Opera, Göttingen and Halle Handel Festspiels, Aix-en-Provence, and the Palau de la Musica in Barcelona, with conductors Michael Tilson-Thomas, Donald Runnicles, Mistislav Rostropovich, William Christie, Nicholas McGegan, Nigel Rogers, Andrew Parrott, Marc Minkowski, Helmut Rilling, Robert Craft, and Robert Shaw, among many others. Many of her nearly fifty recordings, released on the Harmonia mundi USA, Naxos, Opus 111, CBC Records, Koch International, Newport Classic, Arabesque, VOX, PGM, Centaur, and Gaudeamus labels have won awards, as have her two films: The Opera Lover and Dido & Æneas. The latter, with The Mark Morris Dance Company and Tafelmusik, was filmed for BRAVO Television. Now Associate Professor of Voice at the University of North Texas, Ms. Lane has held positions at Stanford University and the University of Kentucky. Her students have won Metropolitan Opera National Council, NATS, and other competition prizes and awards. They have participated in prestigious Young Artist programs, have served as Teaching Fellows, and won prestigious Graduate Fellowships. A number of them are nationally and internationally active.”
Both of these soloists were incredibly expressive and have absolutely beautiful voices. Their vocal production made it possible for both of them to have considerable power, and at the same time, extreme control over dynamics. Jennifer Kampani is capable of some of the softest pianissimos that I have heard, and they carry a great distance. Jennifer Lane has such amazing breath control that she can shape phrases that seem to go on forever. I do wish, however, that both of these gifted women would concentrate a little more on diction and the change in diction between two words. For example in Verse III where the text reads, “Fuit illa Benedicta”, I could not hear the final T on Fuit, nor the I in the word illa. And, in Verse IX, where the text reads, “Sancta Mater…”, I could not hear the beginning S on Sancta. There were other examples as well. My point in bringing this up is that one should be able, I believe, to tell, in what language a singer is singing. I am quite familiar with the Stabat Mater text because I have taught graduate courses in Medieval liturgical music and the Medieval Mass. Both of these women are so skilled and artistic in every way, that the diction problem was quite surprising.
This was an absolutely marvelous concert: the programming was inventive, the musicians were excellent, and the venue was excellent as well. I have become accustomed to the artistic performances of the Boulder Chamber Orchestra, and I most certainly was not disappointed Saturday evening. This is another group of musicians who is helping to place the state of Colorado on the list of those who have a solid foundation in the arts.
Filed under: Reviews | Tags: Bahman Saless, Beethoven, Boulder Chamber Orchestra, David Korevaar, K. 425, K. 467, Mozart
The Boulder Chamber Orchestra, under the leadership of Maestro Bahman Saless, gave the second performance of their opening season at the Broomfield Auditorium Saturday evening, September 29. David Korevaar, Professor and Chairman of Piano at CU in Boulder, performed the Mozart Piano Concerto, K. 467 in C major, and the Beethoven Rondo in B flat Major. After the intermission, the orchestra performed Mozart’s Symphony Nr. 36 in C Major, K. 425.
This performance was completely fresh in so many ways: the clarity and transparency in the way the BCO performed these classical period pieces was absolutely breathtaking. Their phrasing was meticulous, as were their attacks, which were quite stunning because there were no ill-defined entrances whatsoever. The entire orchestra seemed very excited to get the season underway after all of the rehearsals, and there was a marked vigorousness and uniformity of purpose in the way they played.
Korevaar and Saless opened program with the Beethoven Rondo in B flat Major. Though I have known of this work for several years, this is the first time that I have heard it performed live. There is a certain amount of speculation concerning this piece: some consider that it was probably intended to be a movement for Beethoven’s Piano Concerto Nr. 2 in B flat Major (This concerto is really the first of the five piano concertos that Beethoven wrote, but it is called number two because of the order of publication. The Concerto in B flat was published in 1801 by Hoffmeister.) The problem arises from the fact that this Rondo carries no date of completion, but scholars generally agree, based on handwriting analysis, that it was completed by Beethoven, minus the cadenzas. Those seem to have been completed by Carl Czerny. It is interesting to note that a similar situation also involves a Rondo in D, K. 382, by Mozart; however, the Mozart Rondo is performed considerably more often than the Beethoven. I do not know why the Beethoven is so seldom performed, because it is an absolutely delightful piece of music.
Korevaar’s performance of this work was as charming as the piece itself. The piece goes very quickly with all kinds of scale-like passages and difficult finger work in the right-hand commented by octaves in the left-hand. Keep in mind that this is an early Beethoven piece, and while it does show Haydn influence, it certainly shows that Beethoven is rapidly developing his own style of composition and keyboard playing. (Beethoven studied with Haydn for a time, but later in his life professed to have learned absolutely nothing from his studies. I have always found that remark rather puzzling.) I was struck from the outset of how comfortable Korevaar seemed to be with the orchestra, and in turn, how comfortable Saless was with Korevaar. There is always give-and-take between soloist and conductor, but these two gentlemen seem to be in complete agreement about how this piece should be performed. I have heard Korevaar perform several times, and I am always struck by the seeming ease of his concentration. It is clear that he is totally at ease when he performs with an orchestra, and keep in mind, that the soloist has to learn the orchestra part in addition to what they must play (in this instance) at the keyboard, because they depend on cues from the orchestra and the conductor. From the outset, I was delighted with the precision exhibited by the Boulder Chamber Orchestra. It wasn’t just clean entrances and exits; it was very musical precision, and it matched what Korevaar was doing at the piano. One can shape a phrase and basically three ways: dynamics, rubato, and inflection of tone. The orchestra was answering Korevaar’s phrasing beautifully, and there is no doubt in my mind whatsoever that Saless and Korevaar shared the same musical idea of this piece.
Following the Beethoven, the BCO and Korevaar performed the Mozart Piano Concerto Nr. 21 in C Major, K. 467. This is arguably one of Mozart’s most famous Piano Concertos, and it was the first performed during the Lenten season at the Burgtheater on March 10, 1785. One of the most notable aspects of the performance Saturday night was the fact that David Korevaar wrote the cadenzas for this concerto. For those of you who may be unfamiliar with just what a cadenza is: it usually appears in the concerto form at the end of the first, second, or third movements. The orchestra stops playing and the soloist begins to play the cadenza which, in the Classical Period, gave the soloist the opportunity to display his prowess at improvisation. However, many artists chose to write the cadenzas out and then memorize them. The cadenzas are usually based on themes heard in that particular movement, and it certainly gives the soloist a chance to display his virtuosity. Though based on themes from the movement, the rhythm is free, but it usually contains enough strict rhythm so that the origination of the themes can be recognized. In modern times, very few concert artists write their own cadenzas, so it was a special treat to hear fresh cadenzas for this concerto Saturday evening.
Korevaar exposed the full range of expression in all three movements of this concerto. I phrase it in those terms, because this is one of the Mozart piano concertos that has, by some scholars, been referred to as one of the first “symphonic” concertos. The reason for that is, 1) it is written for a large orchestra, and 2) as the program notes stated, “The scope and range of expression exhibited in the C Major Concerto are simply astounding.” I was quite surprised by the tempo that Korevaar and Maestro Saless took in the opening movement. I’m not sure that I have ever heard this first movement played so quickly, but I stress that the tempo fit, and Korevaar had no difficulty demonstrating Mozart’s own ability to play the piano which was one of the reasons that this concerto became so famous. In 1785, Mozart was certainly at the apogee of his success as a pianist. The cadenza was absolutely pure Mozart, and it contained just enough rubato in spots to make it sound like one of Mozart’s opera arias. The second movement of this concerto was the perfect example of the lyricism, transparency, and phrasing that I mentioned in the second paragraph of this article. Every instrument in the orchestra and certainly every section could be heard. Mozart’s skill at creating a soaring melodic line is done through irregularities in the phrasing and unusual (for that time) use of register. It truly seemed as though Korevaar were somehow in communication with Mozart as he performed this movement. The phrasing was superb, and the orchestra and soloist seemed to be in genuine partnership as they were able to sustain a pitch as it was transferred from strings, then to the piano, then to the winds.
Korevaar and Saless took a very fast tempo in the third movement, but again, it fit, and I can guarantee you that nothing musically suffered whatsoever. It was almost a typical Mozart opera buffa in spirit, and there is a remarkable “question and answer” between the piano and the orchestra. Saless was very careful in making sure that the orchestra had exactly the same inflection as the piano. The cadenza to this movement displayed the same character as the movement as a whole, and there was a humorous “false start” which I am sure caught the audience’s attention. The cadenzas that Dr. Korevaar wrote for this concerto were absolutely marvelous and so well conceived that Mozart himself could have written them.
In 1783, Mozart and his new wife, Constanze Weber, left Vienna for Salzburg so that he could introduce his wife to his father. He had hoped to reconcile with his father who did not approve of their marriage, but, unfortunately, the marriage only deepened the split between him and his father. It did, however, give Mozart his final freedom from being led around and displayed as a maturing prodigy. In the Weber family, he found solace and shelter from the growing rift between himself, his father, and his sister. On the way to Salzburg Mozart and his wife, Constanze, stopped in the city of Linz where they stayed with Count Johann Joseph Anton Thun-Hohenstein. In order to return the favor of staying with them, Mozart gave a concert which featured his new Symphony in C Major, K. 425. Since Mozart had not brought a symphony with him on this trip, he had to write this symphony in Linz, and he completed it in four days. Though written in such an unbelievable space of time, this symphony is regarded as Mozart’s finest to this point in his life.
This is the first Mozart Symphony that begins with a slow introduction (something that he borrowed from Haydn, and Haydn borrowed some of Mozart’s lyricism) that is immediately impressive because of its solemnity. Maestro Saless and the orchestra gave this such a serious flavor, that it appeared to be almost Beethoven-ian. Even though the allegro that follows certainly contrasts with the seriousness of the introduction, and even though I’m quite familiar with the symphony, I was on the edge of my seat in expectation. Saless and the orchestra brought out the contrasts that are inherent in this first movement. The contrast of the descending line in measure five of this slow introduction was absolutely something to behold. It was unbelievably sweet and emotional, and yet pure Mozart. The second movement, even though it is in a 6/8 meter, is almost identical to a minuet which is always in a 3/4 meter. However, unlike a minuet, this movement has a pronounced development section which was very subtly outlined by the orchestra and helped emphasize the form. The woodwinds in this movement were spectacular, and helped to give this 6/8 time signature a great deal of grace. When the minuet of the third movement was played, there was no question that we were hearing a minuet, but it emphasized Mozart’s skill in writing similar, but contrasting, themes. The idea of contrasting themes is continued by Mozart in the last movement. He certainly was not the first to use the idea of contrasting themes, but in this symphony they are so pronounced – it is almost as if one is listening to early Beethoven. Maestro Saless and the orchestra gave each of these contrasting themes its own clear character, and it was done in a very easy way that was absolutely perfect and natural.
The “Linz” Symphony is a popular work, as it should be, but it is very refreshing to hear it done in such a wonderfully clear, and, if you will pardon me for using the same word again, transparent way. Everything that the Boulder Chamber Orchestra performed Saturday night was so very clean. The performance was light and airy where it should have been light and airy, and while there were certain portions that were dark, and perhaps a little mysterious, they were never heavy and ponderous. I have written about this orchestra many times, and I have often said that they are remarkably consistent in their improvement from season to season. I have never heard them give a bad performance. Saturday’s performance underscored the fact that we have a great deal to look forward to in the 2012-2113 season. That is exciting.